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Expressions, Loops and Arrays

In our previous lesson we learnt all about JavaScript variables, functions and objects. In this tutorial we will be diving a little deeper, exploring expressions, loops, arrays and the DOM.

Before we start…

Download the files required to begin working through the tutorial from here.

In the first half of this tutorial we will be using the files lesson2.html and script.js, then files london.html and london-script.js for the second part.


In the first tutorial, we learnt all about values.


var name = 'codebar';

console.log(name + ' is amazing!'); // this is an expression


var pi = 3.14;

console.log('The value of pi: ' + pi);

and Objects:

var person = {
  first_name: 'Archibald'

console.log('Hello ' + person.first_name + '!');

We are now going to introduce one more important type: booleans. A boolean can only be true or false, for example:

var codebarIsAwesome = true;
var weatherIsAmazing = false;

console.log('Is codebar AWESOME? ' + codebarIsAwesome);
console.log('Is the weather in London amazing? ' + weatherIsAmazing);



In the first tutorial, we learnt about expressions using the + operator. The other basic math operators are -, *, and /:

var x = 6;
var y = 3;
var addition = x + y;

console.log('Addition: x + y = ' + addition); // Addition: x + y = 9

var subtraction = x - y;

console.log('Subtraction: x - y = ' + subtraction); // Subtraction: x - y = 3

var multiplication = x * y;

console.log('Multiplication: x * y = ' + multiplication); // Multiplication: x * y = 18

var division = x / y;

console.log('Division: x / y = ' + division); // Division: x / y = 2

Why not try some other maths problem using the x and y variables?

More maths

Other useful math operators are %, **, ++ and --:

The modulus % operator returns the remainder when dividing one operand by another.

The exponentiation ** operator returns the result of raising the first operand to the power of the second.

The increment ++ and decrement -- operators return the result of adding one and subtracting one from an operand respectively.

var x = 5;
var y = 3;
var modulus = x % y;

console.log('Remainder: x % y = ' + modulus);

var exponentiation = x ** y;

console.log('Exponentiation: x ** y = ' + exponentiation);

var increment = x++;

console.log('Increment: x++ = ' + increment);

var decrement = y--;

console.log('Decrement: y-- = ' + decrement);


The === operator compares two values, it returns the boolean true if they are equal and false if they are not.

var apples = 'apples';
var oranges = 'oranges';

var equal = apples === oranges;

console.log('Apples and oranges are the exactly same: ' + equal);

The opposite of === is !==. It returns true if they are not equal, and false if they are.

var apples = 'apples';
var oranges = 'oranges';

var notEqual = apples !== oranges;

console.log('Apples and oranges are different: ' + notEqual);

You may also see == and !=, these are similar but have some quirks so it’s generally recommended to avoid them. It is safer to use === and !== as they will always do what you expect.

The > and < operators are “greater than” and “less than”. You can use them to tell which of two numbers is bigger.

var coaches = 20;
var students = 24;
var pizzas = 25;

var moreStudents = students > coaches;
console.log('Are there more students than coaches?' + moreStudents);

var lessStudents = students < pizzas;
console.log('Are there fewer students than pizzas?' + lessStudents);

Play around with changing the coaches, students and pizzas variable numbers to familiarise yourself with operators.

You can also combine operators.

var enoughPizzas = (coaches + students) < pizzas;
console.log('Do we have enough pizzas for everybody? ' + enoughPizzas);

Now sit with your coach and create 2 variables, one is your age and one is the minimum driving age. Then console log whether you are old enough to drive.

If statements

An if statement lets you run a piece of code if an expression is true.

var codebarIsAwesome = true;

if (codebarIsAwesome) {
  console.log('codebar is AWESOME!');

Change the codebarIsAwesome variable to false, what happens now?

You can use an expression inside an if statement.

var coaches = 20;
var students = 24;
var pizzas = 25;

var totalPeople = coaches + students;

if (totalPeople > pizzas) {
  console.log('We have more people than pizzas!');

if (students > pizzas) {
  console.log('We have more students than pizzas!');

You can add an else block to run some code if the expression is false.

if (totalPeople > pizzas) {
  console.log('We have more people than pizzas.');
} else {
  console.log('We have waaay too much pizza. That can never be bad! :)');

Ternaries - Additional learning

You may also see if/else statements written slightly differently.

The condition followed by a question mark (?), then an expression to execute if the condition is truthy followed by a colon (:) and finally the expression to execute if the condition is falsy.

condition ? expression1 : expression2

Using the people and pizza example we wrote above and using the Ternary Operator instead of if/else it would look like this:

totalPeople > pizzas
  ? console.log('We have more people than pizzas.')
  : console.log('We have waaay too much pizza. That can never be bad! :)')


A loop is used to execute a set of statements repeatedly until a condition is met.

The while loop

The while loop is the simplest and most general loop in JavaScript. It looks a bit like an if block, and just like an if block, the stuff in the round brackets is a test.

while (test) {
    // Do some stuff.

When the while loop starts, the test is checked. If it is false, then the while loop is skipped. If the test is true, then like an if block the statements in the curly braces are executed.

The difference is what happens after the statements in the block. With an if, everything is finished and the statements below the if block are executed. With a while, we go back up to the test. If the test is still true, the statements in the block are executed again, and so on until the test is false. This is why we call it a loop.

For example, if we wanted to set a timer on an online ticket outlet, we could count the timer down and while it hasn’t reached zero, the option to buy the ticket could still be available.

We can use this to sum all numbers from 1 to 10:

var i = 1;
var total = 0;

while (i <= 10) {
  total = total + i;
  i = i + 1;

console.log('Total: ' + total);

We can also express <= 10 using < 11

You can read this as:

  • Start with variables i = 1 and total = 0.
  • While i is less than or equal to 10:
  • Add i to total, and update total with the result.
  • Add 1 to i, and update i with the result (increment i).

Since the value of i goes up by one at the end of each loop iteration, eventually (when i is 11) the test will be false, and the while loop stops.

The for loop

The for loop offers the same behaviour as a while loop, but arranged in a way that is often more convenient. It’s very common in loops to have a counter (as there was in the case above), and the for loop caters especially for this.

for (/* before loop starts */; /* test before each iteration */; /* after each iteration */) {
  //set of statements

The stuff in the round brackets is split into three parts by ;. The first part is used once, before the loop begins. It’s a good place to set an initial value for a counter (like x = 1 in the while loop example).

The second part is a test, and like in the while loop it is checked before each iteration.

The third part is executed after each loop iteration. It’s useful for incrementing the loop counter.

For example, if we had an online shopping basket, we could loop over the items in the basket and add up the cost to a total using a for loop. The initial value can be zero, the second part can test that there are still items left to be added up and the third part can increment to the next item. The code that is run on each iteration can add the cost to a shopping basket total.

The while loop above can be rewritten as a for loop:

var total = 0;
var i;

for (i = 1; i <= 10; i = i + 1) {
  total = total + i;

console.log('Total: ' + total);

Another way to write the for loop is for (var i = 1; i <= 10; i++). The i++ is a short way of writing “increase i by one”.

Even though while loops are simpler than for loops, it is more common to see for loops. This is because loops are often used to do something with arrays, which are introduced in the next section.


An array is a simple data structure. It can hold a list of elements of the same or different types (e.g. strings, numbers, booleans). In an array each element can be accessed using the index.

Confusingly, the first index of an array in JavaScript is 0, not 1.

To understand this better, let’s create an array of strings.

var animals = ['dog', 'cat', 'rabbit', 'horse', 'elephant', 'monkey'];

To retrieve an item from the array, we use square bracket notation

To get the first item animals[0], the second animals[1] etc.

Create an array that includes 5 names and then access the 3rd item in the array. (don’t forget to access the third item in the array you won’t be doing [3])

Properties - length

The length property returns the size of the array


The length property is extremely useful when you want to do something with every element in an array. For example, to log each entry of the animals array, you can use animals.length with a for loop:

var i;

for (i = 0; i < animals.length; i = i + 1) {
  var animal = animals[i];

Note that we go up to, but do not include animals.length as an index. This is because arrays are indexed from zero, so the last index is always one less than the length.


The word method is usually used to mean a function that belongs to an object. It’s common to see them used with the dot notation.

Adding objects to an array

array.push(object) adds an element to the end of the array

array.unshift(object) adds an element to the beginning of the array

var animals = ['dog', 'cat', 'rabbit', 'horse', 'elephant', 'monkey'];



// Expected output: ['cow', 'dog', 'cat', 'rabbit', 'horse', 'elephant', 'monkey', 'zebra']

Removing objects

array.pop() removes and returns the last element

What do you expect to get when apply pop() to the animals array? Try it out.

Analogously, array.shift() removes and returns the first element of the array.


To order the elements of an array we can use sort().


Try this out on an array of strings.

var names = ['Jane', 'Barry', 'Helen', 'David', 'Sam'];



What happens when you add the operator reverse() like so animals.sort().reverse();

sort takes the array and sorts the items in a kind of alphabetic order (but be careful of capital letters and special characters). sort can be (and usually is) customised to sort things in any way you like. It can take a function as an argument to tell it what to do. For example:

function sortNumbersAscending(a, b) {
    return a - b;

var nums = [1, 5, 3, 19, 2, 10];



Sort passes pairs of entries from the array to sortNumbersAscending. If sortNumbersAscending returns a number less than zero, then sort knows that a should come before b. If the number is greater than zero, then b should come before a.

// Sort numbers descending.

Can you write a function called sortNumbersDescending that can be used in place of .sort(sortNumbersAscending).reverse()?

Loops again!

Now that we know what arrays are, we can use that to understand loops better. Let’s try out another example:

var fruitAndVeg = ['apple', 'orange', 'banana', 'kiwi', 'avocado', 'celery', 'aubergine'];
var noAvocados = [];
var i = 0;

while (i < fruitAndVeg.length) {
  if (fruitAndVeg[i] !== 'avocado') {
  i = i + 1;

Can you understand what this loop is doing? Try to explain it to your coach.

There is a counter here though, so a better way to write this would be:

var fruitAndVeg = ['apple', 'orange', 'banana', 'kiwi', 'avocado', 'celery', 'aubergine'];
var noAvocados = [];

for (var i = 0; i < fruitAndVeg.length; i = i + 1) {
  if (fruitAndVeg[i] !== 'avocado') {


What is the DOM?

DOM stands for Document Object Model.

When the HTML is loaded on our page, the browser generates its DOM. This enables us to access and interact with HTML elements using JavaScript.

DOM representation

     London <strong> is awesome</strong>

Interacting with the DOM

The DOM is represented by nodes. Each node has different properties, and nodes are connected (like in the tree diagram above).

Let’s try interacting with the DOM of our page by getting the parent node of the body.

Try this using the console on the inspector. As the script gets loaded before the body, the element will not be there if you try adding this to the script.js


To get around this issue, we will be wrapping our called in functions triggered by the interface.

Write a function that lists all DOM children elements.

function listDomElements() {
  var children = document.body.childNodes;
  var i;

  for (i = 0; i <  children.length; i = i + 1) {

and add a link that triggers the function

<a href="#" onclick="listDomElements()">List DOM elements</a>


But interacting with DOM doesn’t need to be this complicated.

An easier way of interacting with the DOM is by retrieving elements using their tag.


That’s not very easy though, as it’s likely that you will have multiple paragraphs, divs, links or other elements.

The most common way, is by retrieving elements by id.

Add an id descriptionto the paragraph element.

var description = document.getElementById('description');

Modifying the HTML

Steps for creating new elements

There are three main steps we need to follow to achieve this.

  1. creating an element
  2. creating text nodes
  3. adding children to elements

Try this out using the london object we declared previously

var london = {
  name: 'London',
  population: 8308369,
  tallestBuilding: {
     name:  'Shard',
     height: '310m'
  numberOfUniversities: 43,
  averageRent: 1106,
  dailyTubePassengerJourney: 3500000,
  olympics: [ 1908, 1948, 2012],
  updatePopulation: function(newPopulation) {
    this.population = newPopulation;

Display the population

function displayPopulation() {
  // Make a new <p></p> for population. This is not attached to the DOM yet.
  var paragraph = document.createElement('p');

  // Make some text content to put into your <p></p>
  var content = document.createTextNode('Population: ' + london.population);

  // Put the text content into the <p></p>.

  // Finally the population can be appended to the body, and will become visible in the browser.

Don’t forget to add a link that calls the function.

Create functions that load all the individual information we have stored about London. If you are having trouble ask for help from your coach.

When you are done with this, try creating one main function that does the calls. Use the JavaScript onload() event on the body, similar to how we used the onclick() event previously, to add the information to the page.


Modify the JavaScript file we used in the first part of the lesson, and its HTML page so that you can load the information on the page instead of the console.

Remember to wrap your code in functions!

This ends our Beginning JavaScript. Is there something you don’t understand? Try and go through the provided resources with your coach. If you have any feedback, or can think of ways to improve this tutorial send us an email and let us know.

Further Learning

If you want to learn how to Build a Random Phrase Generator in JavaScript, then watch this video on our YouTube.